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Although the study used the intention to treat analysis, when we removed the incidents where the use of the CEW was unsuccessful (n = 14) (thereby requiring subsequent alternative force options—typically physical control), the safety profile of the CEW rose to 88.7% (i.e., no injury or minor injury to subjects only). - Recommendations for the Use of the Taser – by Fabrice Czarnecki, M. (10/04) IACP Legal Officers' Section 2004 Presentation Materials (Los Angeles, CA). (12/17/09) Report of the Maryland Attorney General's (Douglas F. (09/09) Recommended Guidelines for the Use of Conducted Energy Devices, Municipal Police Training Council, Division of Criminal Justice Services, State of New York. Provincial Guidelines for the Use of Conducted Energy Weapons. (03/05/08) (Canada) Nova Scotia, Conducted Energy Device (CED) Review, Nova Scotia Department of Justice. Some CED related findings, statements include: Page 8-3: “Across 12 agencies and more than 24,000 use of force cases, the odds of a suspect being injured decreased by almost 60 percent when a CED was used.” Page 8-3: ” Controlling for other types of force and resistance, the use of CEDs significantly reduced the probability of injuries.” Page 8-4: “In juxtaposition to these observations, our findings consistently show a significant reduction in the risk of injury to suspects when CEDs or OC spray is used.” Page 8-4: “In very rare cases, people have died after being pepper sprayed or shocked with a Taser, although no clear evidence exists that the weapons themselves caused the deaths.” Page 8-5: “According to the survey results, 45 percent of agencies allow for the use of OC spray to overcome passive resistance (suspect sits down and refuses to comply with police commands), while another 20-30 percent of agencies authorize the use of a CED under these circumstances.” Page 8-5: “If injury reduction is the primary goal, then agencies that authorize OC spray and/or CEDs to overcome defensive resistance are clearly at an advantage based upon the results from the current study.” Page 8-9-10:” Another important CED-related investigation would be a case study of deaths in custody when the use of a CED was involved and a matched sample of deaths in custody when a CED was not involved.

(08/28/08) Operational Evaluation of the New Zealand [TASER ECDs] Trial, Police Operations Group and the Evaluation Team at Police National Headquarters, New Zealand Police, dated February 2008. - The Taser° – a visual aid presentation [Power Point], Eric Edwards, Phoenix Police Dept. (08/09) Conducted Energy Devices: Use in a Custodial Setting, A Collaborative Study By: Police Executive Research Forum, National Sheriffs' Association, Bureau of Justice Assistance. ” AN ARGUMENT FOR CLEAR AND EFFECTIVE TASER REGULATION, 70 OHSLJ 487, 70 Ohio St. See also: (06/30/08) Nova Scotia (2008) Report of the Advisory Panel to the Minister of Justice on the use of the Conducted Energy Device by Law Enforcement Agencies in Nova Scotia. Advocacy groups argue that CEDs can cause or contribute to suspect deaths.

Therefore, law enforcement need not refrain from deploying CED’s, provided the devices are used in accordance with accepted national guidelines such as the model policy of the International Association of Chiefs of Police." John Morgan, Deputy Director for Science & Technology, National Institute of Justice, May 20, 2008, Less Lethal and Critical Incident Technologies. (07/27/07) National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE) Resolution in Support of the Use of Electronic Control Devices and Less Lethal Devices by Law Enforcement Officers in Use of Force Situations, Adopted at the 31st Annual Conference, on July 27, 2007, in Ft. Page 23: There was general consensus that officers were using conducted energy devices (CEDs), primarily the TASER® [ECD], as the first option. Chief Medical Examiner of Summit County, Ohio a/k/a Dr. D., In the Court of Common Pleas, Summit County, Ohio, Case No. This case was upheld (as to TASER) by the Court of Appeals of Ohio, 9th Circuit in their March 31, 2009 decision (2009 WL 826416 (Ohio App. On August 26, 2009, the Ohio Supreme Court (case no. (TASER), joined by the City of Akron (OH), went to court (in OH) to have the court determine whether the use of TASER electronic control devices that were listed in 3 autopsy reports by 3 medical examiners (MEs) as contributors to death should be removed. TASER®, Position Paper of the Police Training Institute (IL). And the odds of a suspect being injured are reduced by more than 40 percent in CED agencies compared to non-CED agencies.” “All in all, we found consistently strong effects for CEDs in increasing the safety of officers and suspects,” said Dr. “Not only are CED sites associated with greater levels of safety compared to a matched group of non-CED sites, but also within CED agencies, in some cases the actual use of a CED by an officer is associated with a higher level of safety compared to incidents in which officers used other types of less lethal weapons, such as batons.” (04/09) TASER® Risk Avoidance Program (RAP), Michigan Municipal Risk Management Authority, 2003-2008 (Power Point).

(10/08) Medical Panel Issues Interim Findings on Stun Gun Safety, by John Morgan, Ph. Page 37: Deployment of conducted energy devices (CEDs), primarily TASER [ECD], within many jurisdictions has affected the consideration and deployment of other tactical options and less-lethal weapons. "Plaintiffs have failed to produce any admissible evidence stating to a reasonable degree of medical certainty that the [TASER electronic control device] caused or contributed to Lomax’s death. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling on case of weapons confusion - officer drawing and discharging firearm when intended to draw TASER device. 2009-0868) denied the Medical Examiner's appeal of the appellate decision. The Court’s Order, dated May 2, 2008, finds for TASER and orders the MEs to change the cause of death determinations. (07/10) A Multi-Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes: Final Report to the National Institute of Justice, Michael R. (12/08) Green, Saul A., Jerome, Richard B., Independent Monitor's Final Report, City of Cincinnati (Ohio). The Monitoring Team also noted a significant decline in serious force-related incidents at this time.

This volume is written for cardiologists, emergency physicians, pathologists, law enforcement management, corrections personnel, and attorneys. FOURTH AMENDMENT EXCESSIVE-FORCE CLAIMS, FUTURE NONLETHAL WEAPONS, AND WHY REQUIRING AN INJURY CANNOT WITHSTAND A CONSTITUTIONAL OR PRACTICAL CHALLENGE, 60 U. - (08/02/06) Less-Lethal Force - General Order 710 (includes: SOP P1-171. Florida Highway Patrol - Policy Manual - - Use of Control 10.01. (06/24/05) Leon County (FL) Sheriff's Office Use of Force General Order.

Due to the widespread usage of these devices and the widespread misconceptions surrounding their operation, this book will have significant utility. - (12/06/03) Use of Force Continuum - General Order 705. (11/03/07) Miami (FL) Police Department TASER Policy.

He was trained that the Springfield Police Department's policy on [ECDs] stated that they "shall not be used in situations where the suspect may fall from a significant height." As noted above, plaintiff's quibble over the adjective "significant" is overstated. The only crime Officer suspected Plaintiff of committing was a violation of the open container statute, a minor crime, particularly since Plaintiff was the passenger in the car. Holding: Federal court in Seattle found that only the first 3 of 5 electronic control device (ECD) discharges were objectively reasonable. (04/96) IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center, ELECTRONIC RESTRAINT DEVICE: THE TASER® Model Policy. Including Recommendations for Immediate Implementation. Commission for Public Complaints Against Canadian Mounted Police.

The DEC, along with the Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, is part of the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources.

(02/01/09) Electrical Injuries: Medical and Bioengineering Aspects, Second Edition, Edited by Raymond M. If necessary, it begins with an arcing voltage of 50,000 V to penetrate thick clothing; the 50,000 V is never delivered to the body itself. Cincinnati (OH) Police Department Procedure Manual: - 12.025 Authorized Weapons (includes TASER X26 - only by naming it) - 12.110 Handling Suspected Mentally Ill Individuals and Potential Suicides - 12.515 Nonviolent Demonstration Arrest: Mass Arrest Procedure (04/10/07) - 12.545 Use of Force (includes TASER X26, pages 4-5) Colorado Springs (CO) Police Department General Orders: - (12/09/05) Mentally Ill Persons - General Order 540. (03/09/07) Use of Force - Equipment and Proficiency, General Order 1.4, Olympia (WA) Police Department.

A TASER CEW is a hand-held device that delivers a 400-volt pulse with a duration tuned to control the skeletal muscles without affecting the heart at a distance of up to 6.5 meters over tiny wires. City of Seattle, Bringham Young University Law Review 2011, 2011 B. (04-05) Directive: D 05-016 - Department Policy Governing Less Lethal Options: The Taser and the Patrol Less Lethal Shotgun with Beanbag Rounds, Seattle (WA) Police Department.

(03/26/09) TASER® Electronic Control Devices: Physiology, Pathology, and Law, by Mark W. Ho (Editor), (Table of Contents) TASER® Conducted Electrical Weapons are rapidly replacing the club for law-enforcement control of violent subjects within many countries around the globe. (2011) Walker, Joseph G., Tase Me One More Time: An Analysis of the Ninth Circuit's Interpretation of the Fourth Amendment, Qualified Immunity, and TASERs in Brooks v. (07/15/05) Electronic Control Weapons General Order, Orange County (FL) Sheriff's Office.

The only way to determine whether the ECDs are responsible for deaths is to separate evidence from conjecture and analyze the facts of each case. Sether was voluntarily tased during training, and had himself experienced neuromuscular disruption. Officer was also concerned about getting Plaintiff away from the glasses to prevent her from destroying evidence or using them as a weapon. Use of Force Policy, Public Safety Office Portland State University.

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(06/12/08) RCMP Use of Conducted Energy Weapon (CEW), Final Report, Including Recommendations for Immediate Implementation, Commission for Public Complaints Against the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. - Legal Implications of the Use of Less Lethal Force During a Demonstration [Power Point], Mark H. IACP Use of Force Model Policy and Concepts and Issues Papers: (02/06) IACP Use of Force Model Policy (02/06) IACP NLECP Use of Force Concepts and Issues Paper (02/05) IACP NLECP Use of Force Concepts and Issues Paper (08/01) IACP NLECP Use of Force Concepts and Issues Paper (04/99) IACP NLECP Use of Force Concepts and Issues Paper (10/98) IACP NLECP Use of Force Concepts and Issues Paper (12/95) IACP NLECP Use of Force Concepts and Issues Paper (02/89) IACP NLECP Use of Force Concepts and Issues Paper (12/15/10) (MD) Maryland Chiefs of Police Association and Maryland Sheriffs' Association ECD Policy - Cover letter to Maryland Chiefs of Police Association and Maryland Sheriffs' Association ECD Policy (10/15/10) Guidelines for the Use of Conducted Energy Weapons, Public Safety Canada. See also: (06/30/09) Nova Scotia (2009) Report of the Panel of Mental Health and Medical Experts Review of Excited Delirium, Nova Scotia, Canada. Although the medical research to date does not confirm such claims, the subjects in CED experimental settings have all been healthy people in relatively good physical condition and who have not been under the influence of drugs or alcohol.